That view says that moral rules even when the circumstances are the same are relative to culture. Some white women come to accept this view, and insist that their daughters appear in public without a bra or top.
Imagine the reaction those girls would get in our community. For example, in the northeastern regions of Ethiopia and Kenya, which share a border with Somalia, the Somali people practise FGM at around the same rate as they do in Somalia.
Such a view, I argued, and other philosophers have argued, is untenable. Data on the attitudes of men have been collected only in Eritrea and Sudan. According to one Yacouba father, "[My daughter] has no choice.
However, the reason for intervening at all, is because we think that there is something wrong with FGM, even if other cultures accept it. WHO efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation focus on: The equivalent of male castration is female castration: Let me cite some examples.
These documents, however, did not directly mention the practice, focusing instead on broad categories such as detrimental practices, violence and rights v iolations. Viewed in that way, campaigners are fighting not just an isolated practice, but rather an entire way of life and worldview about the place of women in the community and society.
In fact, the Stephen Stich interview is not only the most illuminating, it also serves to show the lack of proper understanding or preparedness Sommers seemed to bring to the project. September 2, Female circumcision, the partial or total cutting away of the external female genitalia, has been practiced for centuries in parts of Africa, generally as one element of a rite of passage preparing young girls for womanhood and marriage.
Though no religious scripts prescribe the practice, practitioners often believe the practice has religious support. In Sudan, for example, one study found that infibulated women are almost twice as likely as other women to have lower fertility and more than twice as likely to be d ivorced.
From the age of eight, girls are encouraged to stretch their inner labia using sticks and massage. In many cultures, considerable social pressure is brought to bear on families who resist conforming to the tradition of female circumcision.
The Central African Republic, where prevalence is moderate, is the only country in which steady decline seems to be occurring. In a study by Nigerian physician Mairo Usman Mandara, over 30 percent of women with gishiri cuts were found to have vesicovaginal fistulae holes that allow urine to seep into the vagina.
Where it is believed that being cut increases marriageability, FGM is more likely to be carried out. In half the countries for which national figures were available in —, most girls had been cut by age five.
A girl with a younger brother may undergo circumcision if she remains unmarried by her late teens, since custom dictates that a boy with an uncircumcised older sister may not be initiated into the warrior c lass. Prevalence Female circumcision is currently practiced in at least 28 countries stretching across the center of Africa north of the equator; it is not found in southern Africa or in the Arabic-speaking nations of North Africa, with the exception of E gypt.
When they order us to stop, tell us what we must do, it is offensive to the black person or the Muslim person who believes in circumcision. However, the relativism that I was targetting in my post is a different type of moral relativism.
If a woman is expected not to live beyond say 55, then they argue she should start her reproductive life earlier. Kevin February 19, at 3: In most societies, where FGM is practised, it is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.
It is in this way different from norms about how much clothing female members of society wear. Start studying Ethics Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. Those who defend the practice of female genital mutilation usually do so using the arguments for Cultural Relativism.
true. The critique of F.H. Bradly of Utilitarianism is that it can conflict with commonly held moral. Female circumcision commonly referred to as Female genital mutilation (FGM), is the cutting out of the girls’ genitalia to conform to cultural traditions and religious beliefs. FGM is classified into three types depending on the extent of damage on the female reproductive organ.
Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is based on the idea that mathematics can be applied to ethics as instead of relying on 'vague' ideas about feelings or conscience, you can classify and measure any action in terms of how many units of each of 'the two sovereign masters' (pain or pleasure) it will produce.
Being a teleological theory, Utilitarians believe that consequences are more important than motives: the stress. Female Gential Mutilation Essay. Female Genital mutilation also known as “female circumcision” is an invasive surgical procedure, prefermormed in African cultures on females age 7 days to 15 years old.
This states that if you cannot imgaine that this action would become a universal law.
When thinking of FGM can you imagine that FGM would be a universal law? Can you imagine every girl and women having FGM? The results of having FGM are devastating so a world where ever. But, as we can tell, they are objectively wrong in their morality, because the evidence tells us that cannibalism and gential mutilation is inherently harmful.
That is not a subjective judgement, but an objective one, which is something that the caller that brought this up was having a hard time grasping.Utilitarianism on female gential mutilation